In the early 1980s, at the height of the crisis affecting the Swiss watch sector, three separate institutes
funded by the Swiss state and large watchmaking groups of the time, Centre Électronique Horloger
(CEH), Fondation Suisse pour la Recherche en Microtechnique (FSRM) and Laboratoire Suisse de
Recherches Horlogères (LSRH), merged under the auspices of the Swiss Confederation to become
the Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, the Swiss Center for Electronics and
Microtechnology, or CSEM. Major watch brands teamed up with this institution and also became
shareholders. Today, this research centre is the beating heart of horological innovation.